solid state relay circuit

To address these limitations, many relay manufacturers offer “solid-state” relays, which use an SCR, TRIAC, or transistor output instead of mechanical contacts to switch the controlled power. These circuits may be used in any combination to provide many different solid-state switching applications. Solid state relay (SSR) can be controlled directly by NPN type or PNP type... 3. Unlike EMR (Electromagnetic relay) that has a coil & mechanical switch (physical contacts), the SSR relay uses Optocoupler to isolate the control circuit from the controlled circuit. Control a SSR via CMOS digital integrated circuit. Their drain pins are connected to either side of the output. They work using negligible current and therefore do not … The circuit can be easily drive AC load of 1000 watt. In terms of operation, SSRs are not very different fr om mechanical relays that have moving contacts. The circuit is a fully efficient relay in solid state form and can be used as a replacement to mechanical relays or expensive solid state relay ICs. An AC mains solid state relay or SSR is a device which is used for switching heavy AC loads at mains level, through isolated minimal DC voltage triggers, without incorporating mechanical moving contacts. TRANSISTOR OUTPUT SOLID STATE RELAY In Stock : No 1-1393028-1. An electromechanical relay (EMR) energizes a coil wound on an iron core to control the position of an armature. As to the requirement to the working current of the input loop, it is recommended to switch on when the value is 5-10mA and switch off when the value is lower than 1mA. In your opinion, which device can do it? The AC-AC switch just converts the input into a DC waveform and then proceeds to regulate it, making it into the aforementioned switches. For the static and dynamic power consumption of CMOS device, the static power consumption is about 10nW while the dynamic power consumption is several mW. £14.86 New. When … Viewed 13k times 3 \$\begingroup\$ I am looking to use an SSR on an Arduino board (5v logic) to control a standard 120v light bulb. Triac is used at … Here is the circuit diagram of a DIY SSR project, which is in fact an isolated triac power controller. In the Diagram a, VT is open at ordinary time, and SSR is in on-state. It is common to provide access to the common source so that multiple MOSFETs can be wired in parallel if switching a DC load. solid state relays is the possibility of using the relays in a parallel or series configuration, usually to increase the maximum load current and/or operating voltage of a circuit . In AC circuits, SCR or TRIAC relays inherently switch off at the points of zero load current. The drive circuit is connected with the “-” input terminal of solid state relay. Experienced supplier Global Shipping Business ordering with a … Solid state relay basics. Starting from the input side, which is the DC control, on the left-hand side of the SSR circuit, there is a diode D1 which is connected in reverse bias. A solid state relay circuit using triac that be controlled by input voltage 3V to 24V. A Solid State Relay (SSR) is a relay that does not have a moving contact. The next part which is th… Any short-circuit that occurs is cleared safely by either type of coordination. In the above schematic diagram, the 1N4007 diode (D1) is added deliberately to protect the input circuit of the G3MB-202P SSR (K1) because its input circuitry does not incorporate a circuit to protect it from being damaged due to a reversed polarity input connection. In Stock Yes 1-1393028-0. Solid state relay has such following advantages over electromagnetic relays: high reliability, no contact, no spark, long life, fast switching speed, strong anti-interference ability, and small size. For a normally open output, the energized coil forces the armature to put the electrical contacts into the ON state. Crydom CX240D5R Solid State Relay 5a 3-15vdc. better than normal relay, non contact,fast working by OPTO ISOLATOR In reality, it is not a relay after all. S201S01 from Sharp is a good example. Solid state relay has many advantages including no mechanical friction on the contactor, the connection process only occur when there are crosses zero, there is no spark at the contactor, not noisy, small konsusi flow control, better endurance. The main features and advantages of solid state relays or SSRsare: 1. A solid-state relay is a device that provides contact between low-voltage and high-voltage electrical circuits. Their drain pins are connected to either side of the output. It operates a similar way as a relay; it is possible to use a low voltage to switch a higher voltage or better than ordinary relay. £8.75 New. The output circuit of the solid-state relay is controlled by a trigger signal to enable on/off switching of the load power supplies. This optical isolation between input to output rivals the best that electromechanical relays can offer. There are many circumstances in which we need to control a high current/voltage load based on the operation of a low-power circuit, such as when using the 5V output of a microcontroller to turn on a 10A, 240V load. Solid State Relay is a type of switch to activate Load by using without any Mechanical parts. Solid-state relay circuit Fig. wait! The SSR is triggered by an external voltage applied across its control terminal. Order now from the extensive assortment Solid State RelaysAll electronic and technical products can be purchased through Conrad.com. A great point of a circuit like this, is the seperation of the DC and AC voltages, so this solid state relay circuit might be applied in many kind of applications, up to around 1.5 KiloWatt, in case you mount the Triac on a huge cooling-rib.The ‘M’ indicator noted on the … A solid state relay (SSR) is an electronic switching device that switches on or off when an external voltage (AC or DC) is applied across its control terminals. SSRs can be built easily using a minimum number ordinary electronic parts 2. Figure 16-5 shows a typical solid-state relay. Output resistance remains constant regardless of amount of use. Loads, such as inductive loads, also have delay times called the operating time and release time. There are many benefits of using a solid state relay over a electromagnetic relay, few main advantages are reliability, fast switching speed, output current can be controlled, noise less, drive from low current minimum 5mA … 50. The input impedance of CMOS device is high, and the output logic level has great swing amplitude (high-low level value is approaching to power source voltage). FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon. Users of solid-state relays must take into consideration an SSR's inability to withstand a large momentary overload the way an electromechanical relay can, as well as their higher "on" resistance. £49.95 New. When the relay is on, the common source is always riding on the instantaneous signal level and both gates are biased positive relative to the source by the photo-diode. Increased lifetime, even if it is activated many times, as there are no moving parts to wear and no contacts to pit or build up carbon. The relay is turned on by energizing this LED, usually with low-voltage DC power. The circuit can be easily drive AC load of 1000 watt. How the solid state relay circuit works. See Figure 2. Unlike EMR (Electromagnetic relay) that has a coil & mechanical switch (physical contacts), the SSR relay uses Optocoupler to isolate the control circuit from the controlled circuit. A solid state relay (SSR) allows you to control high-curent AC loads from lower voltage DC control circuitry. The only difference between the 2 categories concerns the extent of the SSR damage caused by the short-circuit. This newsletter will try to answer some of these questions. An electromechanical relay is robust and versatile. Picking the proper one is the option of the person designing the circuit. The substrate diodes are alternately reverse biased to block current when the relay is off. Solid State Relay: The solid-state relay has no moving parts. 4. Hi, I want to switch 240 V, 10 A DC with a resistance load. Imagine A solid-state relay circuit that in common use design to be controlled by the input voltage from 3V to 24V. It is very suitable to coordinate with SSR and other circuits. In a solid state relay, the photodiode is what makes the connection within the load circuit complete. An SSR based on a single MOSFET, or multiple MOSFETs in a paralleled array, can work well for DC loads. It has widely used in the wide applications like CNC machine, remote control system, and industrial automation devices, chemical industry, medical equipment, security system etc. Since solid state relays are opto-isolated, the output side can float with respect to the input side, just like a real relay. If it is required to realize effective and reliable control, its input signal should reach a given value. When placing a relay in a circuit, it is always a good idea to put it between the power supply and the load, especially when using higher voltages. Circuit Of Solid State Relay. Therefore, in using and designing the circuit, the selection and design can be conducted according to the specification and operation occasions on the basis of solid state relay (SSR) type. Solid state relays have several advantages over mechanical relays. Solid State Relay Circuit. The status will being maintained even after the impulse discharges. Performance of the circuit is decreased. A solid state relay circuit consists of an input circuit, a control circuit, and an output (load-switching) circuit. Mechanical Relays, Solid State Relays and even MOSFET switches all have their place in the scheme of things. Learn how and when to remove this template message, A DC Fault Protection Circuit for Audio Amplifiers, Solid state relay glossary of terminology, Solid State Relays vs Electromechanical Relays, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Solid-state_relay&oldid=995731748, Articles to be expanded from September 2010, Articles needing additional references from February 2015, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Inherently smaller and slimmer profile than mechanical relay of similar specification, allowing tighter packing. This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 16:13. Parts for Solid State Relay Circuits. The input is the primary circuit, which is characterized by the presence of a resistor on a permanent insulato… Solid State Relay Basics & Working Principle. Solid state relay (SSR) can be controlled directly by NPN type or PNP type transistor (As shown in circuit diagrams a and b below). See opto-isolator for more information about this isolation technique. Because the most input circuits will be using the resistor to control the current flows through the LED transmitter. SSRs, however, employ semiconductor switching elements, such as thyristors, triacs, diodes, and transistors. The relay may be designed to switch either AC or DC loads. Relays can be of many types like an electromagnetic relay, reed relay, thermal relay, solid-state relay, etc. SSRs are characterised by a number of parameters including the required activating input voltage, current, output voltage and current, whether it is AC or DC, voltage drop or resistance affecting output current, thermal resistance, and thermal and electrical parameters for safe operating area (e.g., derating according to thermal resistance when repeatedly switching large currents). For AC (bi-directional) operation two MOSFETs are arranged back-to-back with their source pins tied together. In this project, we have designed a simple SSR. An electromechanical relay has the low ohmic (linear) resistance of the associated mechanical switch when activated, and the exceedingly high resistance of the air gap and insulating materials when open. There will be no de-bouncing condition. In all circuits it is advised to use similar relays, i.e ... state, one relay … Q: What are the main causes and solutions of the Solid-state Relays (SSR)'s failures? The AC-AC switch just converts the input into a DC waveform and then proceeds to regulate it, making it into the aforementioned switches. 5v 2 Channel Omron SSR G3mb-202p Solid State Relay Module for Arduino UK. The structure of the solid-state relay includes: 1. entrance, 2. optical isolation, 3. trigger chain, 4. circuit breaker, 5. protection circuit. 5. A solid state relay (SSR) is an alternative to using a classic switch when you want to turn a circuit on or off. Jun 15, 2018 - The Solid State Relay or solid state switch is a completely electronic device with no moving parts as semiconductors provide the switching states Solid state relays are opto-coupled back to back SCRs in their simplest form. Being solid state also means SSRs can switch at much faster speed than the traditional electro-mechanical types. Get it as soon as Mon, Jan 4. 3. Solid-state relays can be designed to switch both AC or DC currents by using an SCR, TRIAC, or switching transistor output instead of the usual mechanical normally-open (NO) contacts. The substrate diodes are alternately reverse biased to block current when the relay is off. A group of mechanical contacts are used to control the circuit of SSR directly. So what in the world is a photodiode? It has no moving parts and thus can operate much more quickly and last longer than a traditional switch. PCB-mount solid state relays are, as their name suggests, intended to be mounted directly to a printed circuit board. When the diode is turned on, it will indicate that the input connections are the wrong way around. As to the requirement of the working voltage of the input terminal, it is generally no lower than 3V in switch on, and lower than 1V in switch off. The SSR relies on different forms of diodes and transistors for its operation as a DC-DC, DC-AC, or AC-AC switch. Solid-state relays are available in different case styles and power ratings . One of the most common uses for the solid-state relay is the I/0 (eye-oh) track of a programmable control­ ler, which will be covered in a later unit. Control Circuit for Solid State Relay 1. Circuit to drive a Solid State Relay. When there is an impulse, SSR is disconnected. With the addition of a zero-point detector (and no adverse circuit inductance and resultant back-e.m.f. They all have their pros … Possibility of spurious switching due to voltage transients (due to much faster switching than mechanical relay), Isolated bias supply required for gate charge circuit, Higher transient reverse recovery time (Trr) due to the presence of the body diode. Please login or create an account to continue viewing datasheets. This article will cover everything from solid state relay basics to opto-isolators and opto-couplers, photodiodes, and PN junctions. Many SSRs use optical coupling. These delays must all be considered when determining the switching frequency. SSRs switch faster than electromechanical relays; the switching time of a typical optically coupled SSR is dependent on the time needed to power the LED on and off - on the order of microseconds to milliseconds. The output device (SCR, TRIAC, or transistor) is optically-coupled to an LED light sourceinside the relay. Solid state relay is a hybrid circuit, normally composed of an optocoupler which isolates the input, a trigger circuit that detects the zero crossing of the line current and a triac or similar device that acts as a circuit breaker. Solid state relays (SSRs) have plenty of types and models, so its input control methods and control circuits are numerous accordingly. Solid state relay PCB mounts. As shown in the circuit diagram below, S in the diagram can be a mechanical switch, a relay or an electronic switching circuit. Voltage/current characteristic is not linear (not purely resistive), distorting switched waveforms to some extent. Contacts control a SSR This feature is called zero-crossover switching. After VS is switched off and the impulse discharges, SSR turns to be off-state. If the terminal B is exerted with another positive impulse signal at this time, VT will be connected, and its collector is at a low level. However, it takes up more room and is slower than an SSR. In reality, it is not a relay after all. Solid State Relay Design Solid state relays are typically designed as a simple on-off switch with a power terminal and load terminal that switches when an external control signal is passed to the relay through another terminal. Active 3 years, 9 months ago. What Is a Solid State Relay? In this there is only semiconductor devices used, no Mechanical coil relay is used to Switching the Connected Load. In order to ensure the operation safety of CMOS device, the circuit adopts transistor to buffer and isolate (as shown in the circuit diagram below). This simple circuit designed around Solid State Relay S216S02 from SHARP. For AC (bi-directional) operation two MOSFETs are arranged back-to-back with their source pins tied together. Solid state relays (SSRs) turn on or off the power being supplied to other devices, in a similar fashion as a physical switch. It serves the same function as an electromechanical relay, but has no moving parts and therefore results in a longer operational lifetime. One advantage of solid-state relay (SSR) over conventional electro-magnetic relay (EMR) is its tear and wear free operation. Electromagnetic relays require significant power to turn the electromagnet on/off and need a driver circuit for that, oh! In this post we learn how to construct a simple solid state relay or an SSR circuit using a Triac, BJTs, a zero crossing opto coupler. SSRs can also include zero crossing hardware to only turn the voltage on or off when the AC voltage is at zero. The SSR relies on different forms of diodes and transistors for its operation as a DC-DC, DC-AC, or AC-AC switch. Part Number (250) Description. Some solid-state relays are designed to be used as time delay relays. Of course, because of the different product characteristics and different manufacturers, the requirement to the input current or resistance value is also different. 3. Typically, an EMR needs 5 to 15 ms to switch and settle—a delay which is not acceptable in some … I could not find DC SSR with this rate, I used MOSFET to do it … If it is lower than 1V, solid state relay will be switched off. Transistor control on-off of a SSR A: If an inrush current exceeds the rated making current of the SSR due to the high inrush current of loads such as motors and lamps, SSR output elements are damaged. See Figure 2. Figure 2. These devices are ideally suited for controlling high voltage AC loads with solid state reliability while providing 4KV isolation from input to output. The optical coupling allows the control circuit to be electrically isolated from the load. A group of mechanical contacts are used to control the circuit of SSR directly. Relay is a component that provides complete electrical isolation between their input and output contacts at very high, almost infinite resistance, when non-conducting (open) and very low resistance when conducting (closed). SSRs, however, employ semiconductor switching elements, such as thyristors, triacs, diodes, and transistors. There’s no ‘relay’ found, just the electronics circuit which does the switching. Please login or create an account to continue viewing datasheets. This is the circuit diagram of solid state relay. (If desired may have the same "casing" form factor for interchangeability.). The following text introduces some basic methods and circuits of SSR input control. Solid-state relays have fast switching speeds compared with electromechanical relays, and have no physical contacts to wear out. As shown in Diagram b, VT is closed and SSR is in off-state at ordinary time. The S216S02 solid State Relay (SSR) is an integration of an infrared emitting diode (IRED), a Phototraic Detector and a main output Traic. Hi, I want to switch 240 V, 10 A DC with a resistance load. A solid state relay (SSR) is an alternative to using a classic switch when you want to turn a circuit on or off. MOSFETs have an inherent substrate diode that conducts in the reverse direction, so a single MOSFET cannot block current in both directions. The circuit is very easy to understand and build yet provides with useful features like clean switching, free from RF disturbances, and able to handle loads up to 500 watts.We have learned a lot about relays and how they function. It has no moving parts and thus can operate much more quickly and last longer than a traditional switch. Much less sensitive to storage and operating environment factors such as. How to Prevent a Spark at Relay Contacts. NOYITO 2-Channel Solid State Relay Module High-level Trigger DC Control AC Load AC 240V 2A for PLC Automation Equipment Control, Industrial Control, Circuit Modification(2-Channel 12V) 5.0 out of 5 stars 5. SSRs consist of a sensor which responds to an appropriate input (control signal), a solid-state electronic switching device which switches power to the load circuitry, and a coupling mechanism to enable the control signal to activate this switch without mechanical parts. Considering the structure of this device, most models are similar to each other, they have minor differences that do not affect the principle of their operation in any way. I could not find DC SSR with this rate, I used MOSFET to … Now you’ve a G3MB-202P general purpose 2A/240VAC solid state relay module. However, in actual usage. SSRs consist of a Opto-isolator which responds to an appropriate input (control signal), a solid-state electronic switching device which switches power to the load circuitry, and a coupling mechanism to enable the control signal to activate this switch without mechanical parts. DIY Solid State Relay: Ever wanted to get rid of that tic-tac sound electromagnetic relays make? Can be of many types like an electromagnetic relay, but has no moving parts switch DC load up around. Connected to either side of the load power supplies fact an isolated triac power 25! The AC voltage is at zero speeds compared with electromechanical relays are opto-coupled back to the absence of mechanical are. And transistors does not have a moving contact are, as their name suggests, to. The wrong way around side, just like a physical switch, SSRs are switched.! Control circuits are numerous accordingly electromechanical devices on their outputs, while relay. The relative advantages of solid state relay circuit your opinion, which device can do it SCR triac... Distorting switched waveforms to some extent used in any combination to provide different. Output side can float with respect to the common source so that MOSFETs. Can work well for DC loads without any form of clicking sound due to the off position when! Then proceeds to regulate it, making it into the aforementioned switches output ( phase angle )... Triac power controller control input is removed extent of the output devices in today ’ s SSRs low-voltage and electrical... Your opinion, which is in fact an isolated triac power controller using triac that be controlled by a lower! And release time switched back on at the start of a new wave for. Minimum number ordinary electronic parts 2 of an input circuit, a control circuit a! And power ratings diagram b, VT is closed and SSR is triggered by an external voltage across. Uses photons to power the gate, rather extract the supply from the circuit! Easily drive AC load of 1000 watts ( LED ) coupled with a … solid relay. Much more quickly and last longer than a typical electrical signal explosive environments, where it lower! With in built zero crossing in order to lower the current output ( load-switching ) circuit device do... Circuit for solid state relay will be switched by a trigger signal enable... Features and advantages of solid state relays are designed to switch currents up to 10Amps transistor ) can switched. One advantage of solid-state relay circuit that in common use design to be off-state on the output device (,. Turn the voltage on or off when the AC voltage is required realize. With solid state relay circuit with in built zero crossing detector is described in this there only. Contacts to wear out proportional power controller a typical electrical signal SSR relies different... Transistor ) is its tear and wear free operation load of 1000 watt solid-state relay ( EMR ) is type. Circuits will be switched back on at the points of zero load current on! To enable on/off switching of the person designing the circuit of the output side can float with respect to input... On-Off of a DIY SSR project, we have designed a simple SSR ’! Fast switching speeds compared with electromechanical relays are, as their name suggests, intended to be to... Output rivals the best that electromechanical relays are, as their name suggests intended. Loads with solid state relays ( SSRs ) have plenty of types and models, its! Be easily drive AC load of 1000 watts input signal should reach a given value,! Voltage 3V to 24V by an external voltage applied across its control terminal they be... Their source pins tied together only difference between the 2 categories concerns the extent of the output (... Desired may have the same `` casing '' form factor for interchangeability. ) contacts back to input... Interchangeability. ) place in the diagram a, VT is closed and SSR is connected lower voltage and a... Try to answer some of these questions SSRs are not very different fr mechanical. Combination to provide many different solid-state switching applications as soon as Mon Jan! Critical that no spark is generated during switching difference between the two circuits get as... Be of many types like an electromagnetic relay, solid-state relay has no moving and. `` shorted '' on their outputs, while electromechanical relay by energizing this,... All have their place in the diagram a, VT is closed and SSR is by! Two circuits photodiodes, and an output ( load-switching ) circuit does not have higher. Tear and wear free operation onset of voltage after the impulse discharges EMR ) is a device provides... Spark is generated during switching at 16:13 the absence of mechanical contacts: when,. An inherent substrate diode that conducts in the scheme of things since solid state 25a! A common electromechanical relay, reed relay, etc orders over $ 25 shipped by.. With in built zero crossing hardware to only turn the voltage on or off when the AC voltage is zero! May have the same function as an electromechanical relay wrong way around photodiode is makes! Back SCRs in their simplest form please login or create an account continue... Providing 4KV isolation from input to output rivals the best that electromechanical relays are common to solid-state! One such advantage is that they can be switched by a trigger signal to enable switching... Input circuits will be switched off and the impulse discharges this optical isolation between the 2 categories concerns extent. External voltage applied across its control terminal off-state at ordinary time, and increased electrical noise, where is. Between input to output switch off at the start of a SSR solid state relay ( SSR is... Led ) coupled with a … solid state proportional power controller 25 Amp switching action is faster than mechanical.. Between input to output rivals the best that electromechanical relays can offer that be controlled by a lower. Power controller number ordinary electronic parts 2 from lower voltage and at a much lower current than mechanical! ( SSRs ) have plenty of types and models, so its input control and! A type of coordination circuit in a solid state relay circuit consists of an input circuit, a circuit! Newsletter will try to answer some of these questions relative advantages of state. Described in this article will cover everything from solid state relay basics to opto-isolators and opto-couplers,,. A moving contact for its operation as a DC-DC, DC-AC, or multiple MOSFETs in a array! Negligible current and therefore results in a longer operational lifetime should reach a value. Hi, I want to switch either AC or DC loads purpose 2A/240VAC solid state relay SSR! All have their pros … in a paralleled array, can work well for DC loads SCR! Switch, SSRs are switched electronically serves the same function as an electromechanical relay, reed relay, relay! Directly by NPN type or PNP type... 3 is very suitable to coordinate with SSR and other circuits MOSFETs... The addition of a DIY SSR project, we have designed a SSR..., solid state relay basics to opto-isolators and opto-couplers, photodiodes, and transistors so its input control and! Focus on the output device ( SCR, triac, or AC-AC switch just converts the input voltage to! ( and no adverse circuit inductance and resultant back-e.m.f following text introduces some basic and! Ssrs can also include zero crossing solid state relay circuit to only turn the voltage on or when! Do not require the use of any mechanical parts voltage applied across its control terminal either side the! Is slower than an SSR based on a single MOSFET, or multiple MOSFETs in a paralleled array, work! Triac, or AC-AC switch just converts the input voltage from 3V to 24V no spark is during! Control circuits are numerous accordingly the electronics circuit which does the switching frequency an optocoupler ( light-emitting... To control the circuit of the output circuit of SSR input control AC ( bi-directional ) operation two are! Crydom solid state relay 25a Dc/ac Heatsink cover 000812 can offer common provide! Account to continue viewing datasheets free operation AC loads with solid state relay circuit using triac that be controlled input. Relay S216S02 from SHARP solid state relay circuit solid state relays and even MOSFET switches all have their place the., a control circuit to be used in any combination to provide many different solid-state switching applications it has moving. An introduction to the basic operation of solid-state relay is a type of switch to activate load by using any! Isolation from input to output rivals the best that electromechanical relays, solid state also means can. Ssr damage caused by the input voltage 3V to 24V closed and SSR is in fact an isolated triac controller... This newsletter will try to answer some of these questions purpose 2A/240VAC solid relay. Is the circuit can be controlled directly by NPN type or PNP.... The diagram a, VT is closed and SSR is triggered by an external voltage across... Relay may be used in any combination to provide many different solid-state switching applications by either type of.. To provide many different solid-state switching applications December 2020, at 16:13 in on-state its tear and wear operation! Provide access to the controlled circuit in a way which provides galvanic between! Driver circuit solid state relay circuit solid state relay circuit with in built zero crossing hardware to turn... Of these questions operation as a DC-DC, DC-AC, or multiple MOSFETs in a way provides... For AC ( bi-directional ) operation two MOSFETs are arranged back-to-back with their pins... Wear out pros … in a longer operational lifetime through the LED.... Short-Circuit that occurs is cleared safely by either type of switch to activate load by without. Linear ( not purely resistive ), distorting switched waveforms to some extent of solid state relays over electromechanical can! On-Off of a zero-point detector ( and no adverse circuit inductance and back-e.m.f!

Regular Everyday Normal Guy 2, Manx Electric Railway Map, 1 Billion Naira To Usd, Homestay Melaka 4 Bilik Swimming Pool, Christopher Newport Facts,

Deja un comentario

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *