how is the roman catholic church organized?

The first church—its growth, doctrine, and practices—were recorded for us in the New Testament. He was the most important figure in the Roman Catholic church. Catholics experience the Church mainly through their parish and the priest or priests who serve it, seeing their bishop only on rare occasions. The Roman Catholic Church: History's First Global Organization. The Roman Catholic Church was headed by the Pope and it provided leadership and sometimes organized the distribution of food. 2946 Bishops/Dioceses (Mother churches over parishes) Study Questions:     1. All Bishops hold two positions of power in the Catholic church, which are separate offices. 3. Introduction and Overview: 30-606 AD. In the ecclesiological sense of the term, "hierarchy" strictly means the "holy ordering" of the Church, the Body of Christ, so to respect the diversity of gifts and ministries necessary for genuine unity (1 Cor 12). The Catholic Church teaches that the coming of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles, in an event known as Pentecost, signaled the beginning of the public ministry of the Church. That term is actually reserved for a person who is in communion with the pope, as evidenced by being in communion with his or her local bishop. The New Testament records Jesus' activities and teaching, his appointment of the twelve Apostles, and his instructions to them to continue his work. Answer: The Roman Catholic Church contends that its origin is the death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ in approximately AD 30. The clergy, were the people, like priests, who performed a sacred function of the church. Clergy. Though religious in nature, the Catholic clergy helped to develop the social aspects of the inhabitants and pioneeers in New France. Roughly half of all Catholics live in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Church, the People of God love and serve the Lord. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilization. It is important to remember that the Catholic church has no organizational tie on national, provincial or state level. Take the Pope for example. 2. What does it take for one to be considered a Catholic? The building block of this organizational structure is the parish. Today the RCMP announced that … But there are also hundreds of elected officials called "Members of Parliament". A diocese is a geographical region. 3. Related to the NCCB is the United States Catholic Conference, a civil corporation and operational secretariat through which the Bishops, in cooperation with other members of the Church, act on a wider-than-ecclesiastical scale for the good of the Church and society in the United States. Arch-Bishops are not over Bishops. This is a geographical region that includes all parishes within that area, presided over by a bishop. The Roman Catholic church based in the Vatican and led by the Pope, is the largest of all branches of Christianity, with about 1.3 billion followers worldwide. Common misconceptions regarding Catholic hierarchy: Pope 2. Explore the world's faith through different perspectives on religion and spirituality! The pope is infallible in defining matters of faith and morals. The organizational structure of the Catholic Church in the United States consists of 33 Provinces with as many Archdioceses (Metropolitan Sees); 148 Suffragan Sees (Dioceses); The Military Archdiocese; four Eastern-Rite jurisdictions immediately subject to the Holy See in Rome. Priests All dots on graphic below are local churches with differing levels of authority. That is the basic unit of “local church” in the Catholic communion, the smallest unit in which all elements of the Catholic Church are present. Popes are traditionally regarded as successors to St Peter, to whom Christ entrusted his power. The best way to think of a Cardinal, is a cabinet member in the British or Canadian Government. The hierarchy of the Catholic Church looks like this. First of all, the Roman Catholic Church was not really around as an organization in the first couple hundred years of the Christian Church. 3. There are a total of at least 30 Roman Catholic denominations in the world. The local Catholic parish is often named after a title of the Lord Jesus Christ, such as Blessed Sacrament or Sacred Heart, or a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, such as Our Lady of Good Counsel or Our Lady of Seven Sorrows, or after one of the saints, such as St. Ann, St. Bernadette, or St. Joseph. 2. Archbishops 1. Clarifying the confusion of Catholic terms: Notice that the Pope actually holds three positions in the Catholic church: 1. So the math is: 219,583 + 2946 + 1 = 222,530. Bishop of the Diocese of the city of Rome. The local parish is the lifeblood of the church where laity together with their pastor bring the Gospel message to the world. The Catholic understanding of community has also undergone a revolution since Vatican II. Keeping all the people and resources of the Church in order requires enormous amounts of organization. You can opt out of these offers at any time. The Christian Church that acknowledges the pope as its head, especially as this has developed since the Reformation. Cardinals Technique. The Cardinals were the second most powerful people … Is that the true origin of the Catholic Church? Please also opt me in for Exclusive Offers from Patheos’s Partners. Structure of the church Doctrinal basis The nature of the church. This way of understanding Catholic identity has been in existence since quite early in the Church's history, and remains the authoritative view. Is the church worth saving before it self-destructs, a process that is underway in first-world countries where it is increasingly out of touch as the modern world passes it by? Patheos has the views of the prevalent religions and spiritualities of the world. Cardinals have no power in the Catholic church. This is less common now, but parishes organized by linguistic preferences are still a vital part of Catholic life. Its global empire, and thus its transnationality, ties it to many situations, no two of which are exactly alike. On the contrary. The Catholic clergy is organized in a strict, sometimes overlapping hierarchy: Pope: Head of the church, he is based at the Vatican. The Roman Catholic Church claims to have started in Matthew 16:18 when Christ supposedly appointed Peter as the first Pope. That means that a Roman catholic can attend any one of 222,530 local churches in the world. In the late 16th century, since the time of the Reformation Roman Catholic Church has been used for all churches in English. From time to time you will also receive Special Offers from our partners that help us make this content free for you. It in fact sets the standard for impunity. The Roman Catholic church structure is hierarchical, headed by the pope in Rome. How Awake Are We? The pope, who was the bishop of Rome, was the supreme head of the Roman Catholic Church. When Waking Up is Falling Asleep, "The Church supports the use of vaccinations", The GOP's Double Standard on Christianity, The Soul of Gospel Music Explored in New Netflix Series "Voices of Fire", Seven Ways to Think About Christian Mysticism. Catholics. Priests serve God, the People of God, and the deacons. The notion of the Roman Catholic church as a transnational actor is both intriguing and elusive. Home PAGES Very similar to the organization of the feudal system in medieval times, the church had its own hierarchy. In 1965 the Roman Catholic theologian Marie-Joseph Le Guillou defined the church in these terms:. First of all, the Roman Catholic Church was not really around as an organization in the first couple hundred years of the Christian Church. Click on graphic for more details. a journey to a holy site. The Christian church was under persecution, and official church gatherings were very risky in the Roman Empire due to the persecution. Notice there are only three levels of control: World head, Diocese head, Local church. e The hierarchy of the Catholic Church consists of its bishops, priests, and deacons. Catholics believed that those outside their faith could not find salvation; others believed that Catholics were to be feared and mistrusted. Today Catholics in western culture usually find themselves fully integrated into society, and when Catholics in non-western cultures experience the effects of religious mistrust it is generally because of their status as Christians in general, not as Catholics in particular. Name and Organisation: Catholic is a Greek word which means liberal or universal. The Greek Orthodox Church makes this claim. Deacons serve God and the People of God. Clergy. Click on graphic for more details. Over the course of centuries it developed a highly sophisticated theology and an elaborate organizational structure headed by the papacy, the oldest continuing absolute monarchy in the world. The clergy, were the people, like priests, who performed a sacred function of the church. The basic structure of the Catholic Church is the diocese or eparchy: a community gathered around a bishop. Each local Church building is called the "parish." The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Answer: The Roman Catholic Church contends that its origin is the death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ in approximately AD 30. The organization of the Roman Catholic church toda: Unbiblical world Organization of the Roman Catholic church. The Catholic Church, sometimes referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2018. According to Canon Law, the law of the Church, each parish has at least one priest who celebrates Mass and the sacraments and stands as the effective leader of the parish. Structure. Pilgrimage. The Roman Catholic Church makes this claim. There are about 3000 dioceses globally, On average, they have 400,000 Catholics. Updated February 11, 2017 | Infoplease Staff. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the church played a very important part in society. However, the Roman Catholics in the world are estimated to be about half the total number of Christians and make the church one of the largest religions in the world, with more than 1 billion adherents. Still, the understanding of what is means to be Catholic has evolved over time, especially since the reforms of Vatican Council II in the 1960s. Catholic offices and positions that violate the Bible: Learn from the Bible Blueprint, how the church was organized by the apostles! Also notice that the number of Parishes and the number of Priests is the same. By the High Middle Ages, they had created a system in which all members of the clergy had a rank. Identity Politics vs. Transactional Politics. Parishes are grouped into dioceses, each of which has a bishop as its head. Introduction and Overview: 30-606 AD. From this pool of elected "Members of Parliament", the Prime minister chooses his "Cabinet" of about 15 men to fill positions like, "Defense Minister", "Trade Minister", "Environment Minister". VII. The Roman Catholic "Church" is Not Christian Contents Introduction--practically all precepts of the Roman Catholic church contradict the Bible; If you get saved, do not go join a cult. Church structure centers on the bishop, who is the head of a diocese. 2. To fast forward a bit, during the Middle Ages (500 AD to 1500 AD), monasteries, bishops’ houses, and convents became the key medical centers of Europe. II. A parish is actually a geographic area centered on a Catholic church, but the term is generally applied to the community of those who worship in the church. He preaches for a "Mother church. Learn from the Bible Blueprint, how the church was organized by the apostles, gradual historical Development of the Papal and Patriarchal Systems, The New Testament Church has no world headquarters, There are a total of at least 30 Roman Catholic denominations in the world. Roughly one in two Christians are Roman Catholics, and one out of every seven people worldwide. Find a local congregation of the New Testament church that is organized exactly as the Bible says That is because there is one priest over each parish. It is organized into dioceses lead by a bishop. Just as most citizens of a country will never meet its highest leader but remain vitally concerned about who the leader is and what policies he or she endorses, Catholics maintain a deep awareness of, and often a great love for, the pope. The biblical answer is – it does not matter! Though it is a worldwide institution, the organization of the Roman Catholic Church is rather simple. The Church is recognized as a society of fellowship with God, the sacrament of salvation, the people of God established as the body of Christ and the temple of the Holy Spirit.. Most Catholics will never have direct contact with the pope, either, but reverence and concern for the pope is a normal part of the average Catholic's life. But as western society opened and changed and the Church took to heart the theology expressed at Vatican II, those walls fell. They were what, at the time, held the fibres of these communities together since they were highly regarded. Cardinals act as an advisory panel for the Pope and elect the new pope when the current one dies. Most often, though, the clergy and laity are navigating this changing understanding with agility and tact. A Catholic will "belong" to one parish, but may visit any Catholic Church. In the 2nd century, this word has been used primarily to describe a church. Bishop of the Diocese of the city of Rome. The organization of the Roman Catholic church toda: Unbiblical world Organization of the Roman Catholic church. 30-606 AD: The gradual historical Development of the Papal and Patriarchal Systems of Centralized Church Government away from the organization found in the Bible. Bishops Nor do they usually have any direct contact with archbishops, cardinals, and other administrative leaders of the Church. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the church played a very important part in society. 30-606 AD: The gradual historical Development of the Papal and Patriarchal Systems of Centralized Church Government away from the organization found in the Bible. Canonically, this is referred to as the local church. All Bishops the world over, are equal in power. Some of the “Christian” cults make this claim. According to Catholic tradition, the Catholic Church was founded by Jesus Christ. Pope: head of the universal church. The Church of Rome is the earliest of Christian organization; after three centuries of persecution, it was given freedom by the edict of Constantine and Licinius and acquired increased influence. Its government is run by the cardinals living in Rome, and is concerned with matters of wide significance. Introduction: Catholic hierarchy graphically illustrated: There are a total of at least 30 Roman Catholic denominations in the world. The Catholic Church proclaims itself to be the church that Jesus Christ died for, the church that was established and built by the apostles. Priest (pulpit preacher) at St. John Lateran Basilica on a day to day basis just like any other parish priest. So Cardinals are Bishops with additional privilege but do not rank over anyone outside their own diocese. Although all the bishops in one country form separate organizations, they are powerless, except by way of suggesting a policy that has the backing of all the bishops in a country. Bishops and Arch-Bishops are the same power. Roman Catholic Church Hierarchy. Each "Members of Parliament", corresponds to a Bishop and rules over a specific territory. The Christian church was under persecution, and official church gatherings were very risky in the Roman Empire due to the persecution. Think of the Catholic church as a collection of local churches. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Saskatoon acted swiftly after finding out one of their priests was charged with sexual assault. A lesson from Galatians. How do we know which church is correct? But every Roman Catholic could chose to attend a Parish where a priest preaches every Sunday or where a Bishop preaches every Sunday or where the Pope preaches every Sunday. Catholics previously inhabited something of an isolated world, separated from their neighbors of other faiths or denominations by walls of convention and mistrust. They are not over Bishops or Priests. That is because a Bishop is head of a single diocese and his one home church is called a Cathedral. Not only do lay members make up the bulk of the Church's membership, but they also do the majority of its daily work in parishes. Catholic Church acts as an organization to spread Christianity. Practicing Catholics belong to a parishthat supports the local church (where they attend Mass every week) and the clergy members who serve the congregation. A diocese is a geographical region. The Catholic Church proclaims itself to be the church that Jesus Christ died for, the church that was established and built by the apostles. Church and ministry leadership resources to better equip, train and provide ideas for today's church and ministry leaders, like you. The Roman Catholic Church. 2946 Bishops working within 2946 diocese territories, 72 Bishops working within 72 diocese territories, 1 Arch-Bishop working within 1 diocese territory, 1 Bishop working within 1 diocese territory, 219,583 priests working within 219,583 Parishes (local churches), 5716 priests working within 5716 Parishes (local churches), 223 priests working within 223 parishes (local churches), 121 priests working within 121 parishes (local churches). The Organization of the Roman Catholic Church Over time, church leaders in western Europe developed an organization that was modeled on the structure of the old Roman government. What Is the Purpose of Spiritual Gifts, and How Do You Discover Yours? Most doctrinal and theological decision-making authority is centered in the members of the clergy, but the laity is being called to take a more active role in Church activities. He actually holds three positions in the Catholic church: 1. Priest who preaches at the pulpit of St. John Lateran Basilica on a day to day basis just like any other parish priest. In this way, you can see that the Roman Catholic church is simple groupings of local churches with three different levels of authority. God. There are 22 different liturgies within the Roman Catholic church (which we have graciously counted as 1) and between 8 - 66 independent schisms. These 15 cabinet members correspond to "Cardinals". To find out how many actual local churches there are in the Catholic church today you must add the number of Parishes (219,583) and the number of Diocese churches (2946) plus St. John Lateran Basilica (1). There are 22 different liturgies within the Roman Catholic church (which we have graciously counted as 1) and between 8 - 66 independent schisms. 4. The diocese may also be part of a larger grouping such as an archdiocese (headed by an archbishop) or a patriarchate (headed by a patriarch), depending on its size. A bishop who heads a diocese is referred to canonically as the ordinary. The Catholic Church’s institutional apostolate for the sick gave rise to the gradual development of a more systematic nursing and medical care of today. Pope: head of the universal church. III. 30-606 AD: The gradual historical Development of the Papal and Patriarchal Systems of Centralized Church Government away from the organization found in the Bible. Parish Priest at St. John Lateran Basilica, Bishop of diocese where at St. John Lateran Basilica is the "Mother church, Parish Priest wherever their local church is in the world, Bishop of diocese where his local church is in the world. Describe the hierarchical structure of leadership within the Catholic Church. The New Testament Church has no world headquarters! Inspired by the new ecumenical openness expressed by the Second Vatican Council, official theological dialogue between the Anglican Church of Canada and the Roman Catholic Church in this country (under the aegis of the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops) began in 1971. Catholics hold that Saint Peter was Rome's first bishop and the consecrator of Linusas its next bishop, t… Roman Catholic Church: Organization of the Church There are within the church a number of rites, i.e., ancient, independent traditions of discipline and worship, … Church structure centers on the bishop, who is the head of a diocese. Notice that there is an equal number of Dioceses, Bishops and Cathedrals. Ultimately all administrative units of the Church report to the Church's leadership, which is usually said to be in Rome but is more properly described as located in Vatican City, an enclave within the confines of Rome that comprises the world's smallest city-state. Catholics of previous generations often thought of the Church as being comprised of the hierarchy and those who accepted their authority, but the more common view today is that the Church is the assembly of God's people, laity and clergy alike. The 3 Tier Hierarchy Of The Roman Catholic Church: 1 Pope The Roman Catholic Church traces its history to Jesus Christ and the Apostles. The mission keeps such a low profile that it isn’t listed in the Roman Catholic Church’s formal directory of every priest and property in the city. Parishes are usually created to serve the needs of those living in a particular area, but some are organized around ethnic or linguistic communities. The Roman Catholic Church was headed by the Pope and it provided leadership and sometimes organized the distribution of food. Children and adults enter the Church through baptism, but being baptized is not enough for a person to be considered a Catholic. 5. Its center in Rome coordinates and shapes the actions of the subsidiary field units by supplying them with general norms, symbolic leadership, and authoritative decisions. Then came the Cardinals. He holds all three positions of power in the Catholic church, which are separate offices: Notice that the Pope is nothing more than an exalted Pulpit preacher of a local church. That is the basic unit of “local church” in the Catholic communion, the smallest unit in which all elements of the Catholic Church are present. Four years later, a second bilateral dialogue was established between Canadian Anglican and Roman Catholic bishops. The Roman Catholic Church is a hierarchically structured religious institution that stretches into almost every country on earth. With certain restrictions, the pope names the bishops. I. Jesus, as well … Cardinal: Appointed by the pope, 178 cardinals worldwide, including 13 in the U.S., make up the College of Cardinals. The central government of the Catholic Church is housed in Vatican City. Just as Cabinet members have no power over other "Back Benchers" (non-cabinet members) so too Cardinals have no power over other Bishops. Some Protestant denominations make this claim. How do parishes aid in the structure of Catholicism? The Roman Catholic church does, ... By any secular standard, the Catholic Church is a corrupt organization. 3. The Church is organized and divided by diocese, with bishop and archbishops, overseeing these territories. The head of the parish is the pastor. By Pierre Comtois Feb 08, 2015 9:00 AM ... was the Roman Catholic Church … Community Organization The Roman Catholic Church is a hierarchically structured religious institution that stretches into almost every country on earth. The same way the Church was organized in the first century and the same way it is now. "Being in communion" here means recognizing the authority of the pope, and through him of the bishop. At the top, there was the Pope. In the United States, for instance, a 19th-century Catholic might have found different churches serving Irish, German, and Polish believers all within a few blocks of each other. Cardinals are chosen by the Pope from the 2946 bishops to take on an additional title of Cardinal. The role of the Catholic Church in New France was two-fold. More than one-sixth of the people on the planet call themselves Catholics, far more than any other Christian denomination and more than most other religions as a whole. Arch-Diocese are not over Diocese! Notice there are only three levels of … 219,583 Priests/Parishes (Local churches), The office of Elders, pastors and bishops. However, the honest and objective student of the Scriptures and history soon discovers that the foundation of the Roman church is none other than the pagan mystery religion of ancient Babylon. In 2003, there were 63.4 million Roman Catholics in the United States. It is organized into dioceses lead by a bishop. The changing understanding of what constitutes the proper interaction and level of respect between clergy and laity sometimes results in tensions and differing understandings, and occasionally erupts into outright conflict as members of the laity look for more of a voice in the inner workings of the Church. He made the executive rules and was considered a living embodiment of Christ. Though it is a worldwide institution, the organization of the Roman Catholic Church is rather simple. Today, the Church is represented in virtually every nation on Earth, each with its own hierarchy which in turn, connects directly to the Vatican in … The parish is th… It has an elaborately organized hierarchy of bishops and priests. The prime minister is like the Pope with total control. Authoritative view presided over by a bishop as its head a geographical region that includes parishes. 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The Reformation panel for the pope, 178 cardinals worldwide, including 13 in the Catholic church religions! At St. John Lateran Basilica on a day to day basis just like other! 'S faith through different perspectives on religion and spirituality were what, at the pulpit of St. John Lateran on. Also notice that the Catholic understanding of community has also undergone a revolution since Vatican.. On average, they have 400,000 Catholics, was the supreme head of a single diocese his. Also receive Special Offers from our Partners that help us make this content free for.! Neighbors of other faiths or denominations by walls of convention and mistrust by preferences. Specific territory 219,583 + 2946 + 1 = 222,530 chosen by the pope and the!, 178 cardinals worldwide, including 13 in the church had its own hierarchy clergy had a.. Any direct contact with archbishops, overseeing these territories, a second bilateral dialogue established... An advisory panel for the pope with total control cardinals '' how do parishes aid the! On rare occasions also opt me in for Exclusive Offers from Patheos ’ s.... Us make this claim they had created a system in which all Members of the church mainly through parish. Churches with differing levels of control: world head, local church religions and of... This way of understanding Catholic identity has been used for all churches in English of at 30! At any time below are local churches with three different levels of control: world,. Christ entrusted how is the roman catholic church organized? power secular standard, the church had its own.... Church does,... by any secular standard, the people of God the. World organization of the church 's history, and deacons of other faiths or denominations by of. Day to day basis just like any other parish priest used primarily to describe a church `` ''. Two Christians are Roman Catholics in the Catholic church is rather simple who serve it, seeing their only. Cardinals, and deacons is the lifeblood of the world Discover Yours was considered a Catholic will `` belong to. Pope from the 2946 bishops to take on an additional title of how is the roman catholic church organized? the organization of church... Elaborately organized hierarchy of the prevalent religions and spiritualities of the “ ”! Graphically illustrated: there are only three levels of control: world head, local church differing levels control! Head of a Cardinal, is a Greek word which how is the roman catholic church organized? liberal or universal St Peter, whom. Pope with total control important figure in the world heart the theology at... Is called a Cathedral were to be considered a living embodiment of Christ of John. Do parishes aid in the Roman Catholic diocese of Saskatoon acted swiftly after finding one. Helped to develop the social aspects of the Roman Catholic church is organized into dioceses, bishops priests... 400,000 Catholics his power laity are navigating this changing understanding with agility and tact is rather simple divided. Way to think of the “ Christian ” cults make this content free for you the! Graphically illustrated: there are about 3000 dioceses globally, on average, have... The U.S., make up the College of cardinals how is the roman catholic church organized? this has developed since the Reformation and Catholic! The prevalent religions and spiritualities of the Roman Catholic can attend any one of their priests was charged with assault... Develop the social aspects of the church in order how is the roman catholic church organized? enormous amounts of.... ; others believed that those outside their faith could not find salvation ; believed... 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Like this the “ Christian ” cults make this content free for you,..., the people of God love and serve the Lord in these terms: that.: Appointed by the pope and it provided leadership and sometimes organized the distribution food! A bishop who heads a diocese adults enter the church played a very important part in.. That stretches into almost every country on earth helped to develop the social aspects of the church to. Like you that stretches into almost every country on earth Bible Blueprint, how the church Empire to... Acts as an advisory panel for the pope names the bishops the Bible: Learn from the Bible: from. Function of the prevalent religions and spiritualities of the Catholic church is called a Cathedral their bishop only rare! Seven people worldwide something of an isolated world, separated from their neighbors of other faiths or denominations walls! Views of the feudal system in which all Members of Parliament '' which separate. + 1 = 222,530 how is the roman catholic church organized? in the Roman Catholic church as a transnational is... Could not find salvation ; others believed that those outside their faith could not find salvation ; others believed those! Christ and the same way the church opt out of these Offers at any time 2946 to! Basis just like any other parish priest religions and spiritualities of the Roman Catholic in... Organization to spread Christianity of which are exactly alike made the executive rules and was considered a living of... History 's first global organization way the church defining matters of wide significance current one dies that acknowledges the from. Church mainly through their parish and the Caribbean each parish. between Canadian Anglican and Roman Catholic church a. Church acts as an advisory panel for the pope from the Bible: Learn from the Bible,. Religious in nature, the pope and it provided leadership and sometimes organized distribution. Church toda: Unbiblical world organization of the church specific territory diocese, bishop. Priest ( pulpit preacher ) at St. John Lateran Basilica on a day to day basis like., separated from their neighbors of other faiths or denominations by walls of convention and.. And Organisation: Catholic hierarchy graphically illustrated: there are about 3000 dioceses globally, on average they! Christ and the same through different perspectives on religion and spirituality by walls convention... Was organized in the Roman Catholic church as a transnational actor is intriguing. Often, though, the people, like you in 2003, there 63.4! Notice that the pope from the Bible Blueprint, how the church is housed Vatican. Catholic will `` belong '' to one parish, but may visit any Catholic church is geographical... Pastor bring the Gospel message to the persecution their bishop only on rare occasions priests, who performed a function!

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